How to calculate the lithium-ion battery’s capacity and charge time
Lithium-ion batteries have been a staple in the modern automotive world for over a decade, but they still have a long way to go.
Today, they’re mostly seen in cars, but researchers at the University of Michigan are taking the batteries and turning them into an exciting new class of electronics.
The results are published in a paper titled “Electronic Energy Storage: A First-Order Model for the Lithium Ion Battery.”
The paper uses the lithium ion battery to demonstrate the fundamental principles behind lithium-based battery technology, which have been around since the 1970s.
Lithium ion batteries are currently a relatively new technology that has many hurdles to overcome, including safety concerns, power requirements, and storage requirements.
But a lithium ion is capable of storing up to 100 times more energy than a lead-acid battery, and it’s possible that it could help improve energy efficiency and lower the cost of electric cars.
“Lithium-based batteries are an exciting energy storage solution, but we’re not there yet,” said John E. Kline, a professor of materials science and engineering and of chemistry and biochemistry at the U-M College of Engineering.
“We need to have better understanding of how they behave in the real world.”
Kline and his colleagues first developed the basic concepts for the lithiumion battery by studying the reaction of lithium ions with a metal called tin oxide.
When tin oxide reacts with lithium ions, it creates lithium compounds that can be separated and then chemically separated.
“What we were trying to do was to see if we could use the reaction with the metal as a catalyst for creating new compounds that could be used to create the lithium ions,” said Kline.
“When you have this reaction in your body, it’s not just a reaction between metals.
It’s a reaction with a protein.”
Klines lab is using this simple method to develop lithium-tetrahedral compounds that have the desired properties.
“The chemical structure of these lithium-trihedral compounds is completely different than those of lead-tetrachloride and lithium-iodide compounds,” said Erika Krasnowska, a graduate student and co-author of the paper.
“So it’s a really exciting result, but it’s also a big challenge.”
The research team first developed compounds that are very specific for lithium-sulfur compounds.
These compounds can store up to 40 percent of the energy of a lithium-water battery, which is one of the main drawbacks of lithium-electric vehicles.
But they also store up excess energy, so they’re still a long ways from being a practical battery.
“There’s a lot of work to be done,” said Brian Bowers, a chemical engineer at the Georgia Institute of Technology who worked on the work.
“One of the things we were hoping for was that the compounds would be able to store at least 20 percent of their energy.
But we don’t have a clear idea how much energy you’d get out of this lithium-sand battery, or what the capacity would be.”
The researchers are now working on a novel approach to develop the lithiums, and are looking at the possibility of adding more compounds to the lithium system.
Krasne said that the new lithium-polymer compounds could be a step towards a new class to replace lead-based materials, but he added that there are still plenty of hurdles before the lithium battery is ready for mass production.
“I would like to see it be more scalable and affordable than lead,” said Bowers.
“It’s not going to be an energy storage device.
The team is currently working on building a more efficient and cost-effective lithium-air battery. “
If you look at the chemistry of lithium, it is really quite different than the chemistry that’s being used for the lead-water batteries.”
The team is currently working on building a more efficient and cost-effective lithium-air battery.
Klines team is also working on more efficient battery chemistry, which could make the process more efficient for use in batteries.
“In our view, the new chemistry is going to have to be optimized for the new materials,” said Dr. Andrew P. Jones, a chemistry professor at the College of Natural Sciences at the university.
“As long as we can get better understanding, it will be interesting to see what happens in the future.”
This article originally appeared in National Geographic as “The Future of Lithium: New Materials and Materials Sciences.”
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